Unlocking the potential of oncology biomarkers: advancements in clinical theranostics

Drug Metab Pers Ther. 2024 Mar 12;39(1):5-20. doi: 10.1515/dmpt-2023-0056. eCollection 2024 Mar 1.

Abstract

Introduction: Cancer biomarkers have revolutionized the field of oncology by providing valuable insights into tumor changes and aiding in screening, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment prediction, and risk assessment. The emergence of "omic" technologies has enabled biomarkers to become reliable and accurate predictors of outcomes during cancer treatment.

Content: In this review, we highlight the clinical utility of biomarkers in cancer identification and motivate researchers to establish a personalized/precision approach in oncology. By extending a multidisciplinary technology-based approach, biomarkers offer an alternative to traditional techniques, fulfilling the goal of cancer therapeutics to find a needle in a haystack.

Summary and outlook: We target different forms of cancer to establish a dynamic role of biomarkers in understanding the spectrum of malignancies and their biochemical and molecular characterization, emphasizing their prospective contribution to cancer screening. Biomarkers offer a promising avenue for the early detection of human cancers and the exploration of novel technologies to predict disease severity, facilitating maximum survival and minimum mortality rates. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the potential of biomarkers in oncology and highlights their prospects in advancing cancer diagnosis and treatment.

Keywords: cancer biomarkers; cancer screening; diagnostics; epidemiology; personalized approach; prognosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Humans
  • Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Precision Medicine* / methods
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies

Substances

  • Biomarkers
  • Biomarkers, Tumor