Locally Advanced Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus: Is Esophagectomy Associated with Improved Overall Survival?

J Am Coll Surg. 2024 Jul 1;239(1):68-75. doi: 10.1097/XCS.0000000000001073. Epub 2024 Mar 14.

Abstract

Background: Esophagectomy in locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma is challenging and carries risk. The value of esophagectomy in locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma is not well-defined.

Study design: The National Cancer Database was used to identify patients with cT4 esophageal adenocarcinoma from 2004 to 2020. Multivariable regression was used to identify factors associated with use of esophagectomy. Cox modeling was used to identify factors associated with all-cause mortality. Patients undergoing esophagectomy were 1:1 propensity score-matched to patients treated nonsurgically. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare 5-year overall survival (OS).

Results: A total of 3,703 patients met inclusion criteria. Of those, 541 (15%) underwent esophagectomy, and 3,162 (85%) did not. Age 65 years or less (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.69, 95% CI 1.33 to 2.14), White race (aOR 2.98, 95% CI 2.24 to 3.96), treatment in academic centers (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.33 to 2.02), private insurance (aOR 1.88, 95% CI 1.50 to 2.36), and tumors less than 6 cm (aOR 1.86, 95% CI 1.44 to 2.40) were associated with use of esophagectomy. Government of lack of insurance (hazard ratio [HR] 1.23, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.35), income <$46,000 (HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.20), treatment in nonacademic centers (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.25), Charlson-Deyo Comorbidity Index 1 or more (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.32), and tumors 6 cm or more (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.32) were associated with risk of all-cause mortality. Esophagectomy (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.56) and systemic therapy (HR 0.40, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.43) were associated with decreased risk of all-cause mortality. Patients undergoing esophagectomy had higher rates of 5-year OS (27.4% vs 13.2%, p < 0.0001) and longer median OS (24.71 vs 10.09 months, p < 0.0001). Among cT4b patients, those who underwent esophagectomy had higher rates of 5-year OS (24.5% vs 12.3%, p < 0.0001) and longer median OS (25.53 vs 11.01 months, p < 0.0001).

Conclusions: In cT4 esophageal adenocarcinoma, esophagectomy is associated with improved rates of 5-year OS compared with nonsurgical treatment.

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma* / mortality
  • Adenocarcinoma* / pathology
  • Adenocarcinoma* / surgery
  • Aged
  • Esophageal Neoplasms* / mortality
  • Esophageal Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Esophageal Neoplasms* / surgery
  • Esophagectomy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Propensity Score
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Survival Rate
  • United States / epidemiology

Supplementary concepts

  • Adenocarcinoma Of Esophagus