Genome assemblies of 11 bamboo species highlight diversification induced by dynamic subgenome dominance

Nat Genet. 2024 Apr;56(4):710-720. doi: 10.1038/s41588-024-01683-0. Epub 2024 Mar 15.


Polyploidy (genome duplication) is a pivotal force in evolution. However, the interactions between parental genomes in a polyploid nucleus, frequently involving subgenome dominance, are poorly understood. Here we showcase analyses of a bamboo system (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) comprising a series of lineages from diploid (herbaceous) to tetraploid and hexaploid (woody), with 11 chromosome-level de novo genome assemblies and 476 transcriptome samples. We find that woody bamboo subgenomes exhibit stunning karyotype stability, with parallel subgenome dominance in the two tetraploid clades and a gradual shift of dominance in the hexaploid clade. Allopolyploidization and subgenome dominance have shaped the evolution of tree-like lignified culms, rapid growth and synchronous flowering characteristic of woody bamboos as large grasses. Our work provides insights into genome dominance in a remarkable polyploid system, including its dependence on genomic context and its ability to switch which subgenomes are dominant over evolutionary time.

MeSH terms

  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Genome, Plant / genetics
  • Genomics
  • Poaceae* / genetics
  • Polyploidy
  • Tetraploidy*
  • Transcriptome / genetics