Review on toxicology and activity of tomato glycoalkaloids in immature tomatoes

Food Chem. 2024 Jul 30:447:138937. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2024.138937. Epub 2024 Mar 11.


Owing to the lack of selection and limited intelligence in mechanical picking, some immature tomatoes that contain alkaloids are thrown away. Tomatine alkaloids are steroidal alkaloids naturally present in Solanaceae plants, which are distributed in small amounts in immature tomato fruits and decrease as the fruits ripen. Tomato glycoalkaloids are harmful to human health. However, in small quantities, there is some evidence that these compounds might be beneficial, as other non-antioxidant bioactivities. This article considers recent research on the biological effects of tomato glycoalkaloids in immature tomatoes, providing reference value for the potential development of these compounds.

Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase; Biological activity; Cytotoxic effects; Glycoside alkaloid; α-Tomatine.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alkaloids* / toxicity
  • Humans
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Solanaceae*
  • Solanum lycopersicum*
  • Tomatine / toxicity


  • Tomatine
  • Alkaloids
  • Plant Extracts