Rare bleeding disorders: Advances in management

Haemophilia. 2024 Apr:30 Suppl 3:60-69. doi: 10.1111/hae.14986. Epub 2024 Mar 18.
[Article in Dutch]


Inherited factor coagulation deficiencies and vascular bleeding disorders, associated with bleeding of various severity, are often classified as rare bleeding disorders (RBDs). These include inherited fibrinogen disorders, inherited platelet function disorders (IPFD) and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). In the last decades, there have been large increases in knowledge on the epidemiology, genetics, physiopathology, clinical features, and diagnosis of RBDs, but improvements in management have been more limited and remain challenging. The treatment mainstay of RBDs is based only on replacement of a few available coagulation factor concentrates or cryoprecipitates. There is growing interest in therapeutic agents that enhance coagulation or inhibiting anticoagulant pathways in RBDs. In severe IPFD, the optimal platelet transfusion strategy is not yet established. Moreover, data is scarce on the effectiveness and safety of desmopressin and/or antifibrinolytic drugs often used for milder IPFD treatment. The best fibrinogen replacement strategy (prophylaxis vs. on demand) in afibrinogenemia is still debated. Similarly, the optimal trough fibrinogen target level for treatment of acute bleeding, and the role of fibrinogen replacement during pregnancy in mild hypofibrinogenemia and dysfibrinogenemia, have not been properly evaluated. The therapeutic arsenal in HHT includes antifibrinolytics and a series of antiangiogenic agents whose potential efficacy has been tested in small studies or are under investigation for treatment of bleeding. However, there is need to address several issues, including the optimal dosing strategies, the potential emergent toxicity of longer-term use, and the impact of systemic antiangiogenic treatment on visceral arteriovenous malformations.

Keywords: fibrinogen deficiency; hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia; inherited platelet dysfunction; rare bleeding disorders.

Publication types

  • English Abstract

MeSH terms

  • Afibrinogenemia* / diagnosis
  • Antifibrinolytic Agents* / therapeutic use
  • Blood Coagulation Disorders* / drug therapy
  • Blood Coagulation Factors / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • Fibrinogen / therapeutic use
  • Hemorrhage / etiology
  • Hemorrhage / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy


  • Fibrinogen
  • Blood Coagulation Factors
  • Antifibrinolytic Agents