Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Mycotic Aneurysm in Patients With Infective Endocarditis and the Impact of its Rupture in Outcomes. Analysis of a National Prospective Cohort

Open Forum Infect Dis. 2024 Mar 13;11(3):ofae121. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofae121. eCollection 2024 Mar.


Background: Several aspects of the occurrence and management of mycotic aneurysm (MA) in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) have not been studied.

Objectives: To determine the incidence and factors associated with MA presence and rupture and to assess the evolution of those initially unruptured MA.

Methods: Prospective multicenter cohort including all patients with definite IE between January 2008 and December 2020.

Results: Of 4548 IE cases, 85 (1.9%) developed MA. Forty-six (54.1%) had intracranial MA and 39 (45.9%) extracranial MA. Rupture of MA occurred in 39 patients (45.9%). Patients with ruptured MA had higher 1-year mortality (hazard ratio, 2.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-3.67). Of the 55 patients with initially unruptured MA, 9 (16.4%) presented rupture after a median of 3 days (interquartile range, 1-7) after diagnosis, being more frequent in intracranial MA (32% vs 3.3%, P = .004). Of patients with initially unruptured MA, there was a trend toward better outcomes among those who received early specific intervention, including lower follow-up rupture (7.1% vs 25.0%, P = .170), higher rate of aneurysm resolution in control imaging (66.7% vs 31.3%, P = .087), lower MA-related mortality (7.1% vs 16.7%, P = .232), and lower MA-related sequalae (0% vs 27.8%, P = .045).

Conclusions: MA occurred in 2% of the patients with IE. Half of the Mas occurred in an intracranial location. Their rupture is frequent and associated with poor prognosis. A significant proportion of initially unruptured aneurysms result from rupture during the first several days, being more common in intracranial aneurysms. Early specific treatment could potentially lead to better outcomes.

Keywords: complications; epidemiology; infective endocarditis; mortality; mycotic aneurysm.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial