Neonatal Ultrasound and Radiographic Markers of Hip Dysplasia in Young Adults

Pediatrics. 2024 Apr 1;153(4):e2023064564. doi: 10.1542/peds.2023-064564.


Objectives: To examine radiologic outcomes at skeletal maturity of sonographically normal, immature, mildly, and severely dysplastic newborn hips.

Methods: During 1988 to 1990, 11 925 newborns were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial examining screening strategies for developmental hip dysplasia. In total, 4469 were invited to clinical and radiologic follow-up 18 years later, of which 1735 had received neonatal ultrasound. Radiographic markers for dysplasia in left adult hips included the center-edge (CE) angle.

Results: At follow-up, 984 of 1735 (56.7%) with newborn ultrasound met, of which 966 (614 females) had valid radiographs and were thus included. For females, 34 (10.2%) and 1 (0.3%) of the 332 sonographically normal left neonatal hips were judged borderline (20°≤ CE <25°) or dysplastic (CE <20°) at skeletal maturity respectively. Corresponding numbers were 36 (19.7%) and 3 (1.6%) of the 183 immature, 12 (15.6%) and 2 (2.6%) of the 77 mildly dysplastic, and 3 (13.6%) and 3 (13.6%) of the 22 severely dysplastic neonatal left hips (P ≤ .001). In males, no associations were found. In females, adult joint hypermobility was associated with sonographic neonatal hip instability (P = .046), as well as with adult acetabular dysplasia (P = .024).

Conclusions: Significant associations between neonatal hip phenotypes and adult dysplasia were revealed in females. This indicates the possibility of different mechanisms affecting the course of developmental dysplasia of the hip for females and males, prompting consideration of prolonged clinical and radiologic follow-up for females with dysplastic neonatal hips. Results in males are limited by low numbers of dysplastic hips. The significance of joint hypermobility warrants further investigation.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Acetabulum / diagnostic imaging
  • Female
  • Hip Dislocation* / diagnostic imaging
  • Hip Dislocation, Congenital* / diagnostic imaging
  • Hip Joint / diagnostic imaging
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Joint Instability*
  • Male
  • Radiography
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Ultrasonography
  • Young Adult