Calcified cerebral toxoplasmosis associated with recurrent perilesional edema causing neurological manifestations in an HIV-infected individual: case report with a decade-long follow-up

Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2024 Mar 18:66:e15. doi: 10.1590/S1678-9946202466015. eCollection 2024.


Four cases of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) with calcified cerebral toxoplasmosis associated with perilesional edema causing a single episode of neurological manifestations have recently been reported. Here, we describe the first detailed description of perilesional edema associated with calcified cerebral toxoplasmosis causing three episodes of neurological manifestations in a PLWHA, including seizures in two of them. These recurrences occurred over approximately a decade. Throughout this period, the patient showed immunological and virological control of the HIV infection, while using antiretroviral therapy regularly. This case broadens the spectrum of an emerging presentation of calcified cerebral toxoplasmosis, mimicking a well-described finding of neurocysticercosis in immunocompetent hosts.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Edema / etiology
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • HIV Infections* / complications
  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Neurocysticercosis* / complications
  • Neurocysticercosis* / diagnosis
  • Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral* / complications
  • Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral* / diagnosis