2024 Update on Classification, Etiology, and Typing of Renal Amyloidosis: A Review

Am J Kidney Dis. 2024 Mar 19:S0272-6386(24)00679-6. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2024.01.530. Online ahead of print.


Amyloidosis is a protein folding disease that causes organ injuries and even death. In humans, 42 proteins are now known to cause amyloidosis. Some proteins become amyloidogenic as a result of a pathogenic variant as seen in hereditary amyloidoses. In acquired forms of amyloidosis, the proteins form amyloid in their wild-type state. Four types (serum amyloid A, transthyretin, apolipoprotein A-IV, and β2-macroglobulin) of amyloid can occur either as acquired or as a mutant. Iatrogenic amyloid from injected protein medications have also been reported and AIL1RAP (anakinra) has been recently found to involve the kidney. Finally, the mechanism of how leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (ALECT2) forms amyloid remains unknown. This article reviews the amyloids that involve the kidney and how they are typed.

Keywords: AL; ALECT2; ATTR; ApoAIV; ApoCIII; amyloidosis; kidney; mass spectrometry.

Publication types

  • Review