Recent advances in carbon monoxide-releasing nanomaterials

Bioact Mater. 2024 Mar 14:37:30-50. doi: 10.1016/j.bioactmat.2024.03.001. eCollection 2024 Jul.


As an endogenous signaling molecule, carbon monoxide (CO) has emerged as an increasingly promising option regarding as gas therapy due to its positive pharmacological effects in various diseases. Owing to the gaseous nature and potential toxicity, it is particularly important to modulate the CO release dosages and targeted locations to elucidate the biological mechanisms of CO and facilitate its clinical applications. Based on these, diverse CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) have been developed for controlled release of CO in biological systems. However, practical applications of these CORMs are limited by several disadvantages including low stability, poor solubility, weak releasing controllability, random diffusion, and potential toxicity. In light of rapid developments and diverse advantages of nanomedicine, abundant nanomaterials releasing CO in controlled ways have been developed for therapeutic purposes across various diseases. Due to their nanoscale sizes, diversified compositions and modified surfaces, vast CO-releasing nanomaterials (CORNMs) have been constructed and exhibited controlled CO release in specific locations under various stimuli with better pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. In this review, we present the recent progress in CORNMs according to their compositions. Following a concise introduction to CO therapy, CORMs and CORNMs, the representative research progress of CORNMs constructed from organic nanostructures, hybrid nanomaterials, inorganic nanomaterials, and nanocomposites is elaborated. The basic properties of these CORNMs, such as active components, CO releasing mechanisms, detection methods, and therapeutic applications, are discussed in detail and listed in a table. Finally, we explore and discuss the prospects and challenges associated with utilizing nanomaterials for biological CO release.

Publication types

  • Review