"Congenital Stationary Night Blindness: Structure, Function and Genotype - Phenotype Correlations in a cohort of 122 patients."

Ophthalmol Retina. 2024 Mar 22:S2468-6530(24)00121-0. doi: 10.1016/j.oret.2024.03.017. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Objective: To examine the molecular causes of Schubert-Bornschein (S-B) congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB), clinically characterize in detail, and assess genotype-phenotype correlations for retinal function and structure.

Design: Retrospective, longitudinal, single center case series.

Participants: 122 patients with S-B CSNB attending Moorfields Eye Hospital, United Kingdom.

Methods: All case notes, results of molecular genetic testing, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were reviewed.

Main outcome measures: Molecular genetics, presenting complaints, rates of nystagmus, nyctalopia, photophobia, strabismus, color vision defects and spherical error of refraction (SER). Retinal thickness, outer nuclear layer thickness (ONL) and ganglion cell layer + inner plexiform layer (GCL+IPL) thickness from OCT imaging.

Results: X-linked (CACNA1F and NYX) and autosomal recessive (TRPM1, GRM6, GPR179 and CABP4) genotypes were identified. The mean reported age of onset was 4.94 ± 8.99 years. Over the follow-up period, 95.9% of patients reported reduced visual acuity (VA), half had nystagmus and 64.7% reported nyctalopia. Incomplete CSNB (iCSNB) patients more frequently had nystagmus and photophobia. Nyctalopia was similar for iCSNB and complete CSNB (cCSNB). Color vision data was limited but more defects were found in iCSNB. None of these clinical differences met statistical significance. There was no significant difference between groups in VA, with a mean of 0.46 LogMAR, and remained stable over the course of follow-up. cCSNB patients, specifically those with NYX and TRPM1 variants, were more myopic. CACNA1F patients showed the largest refractive variability and the CABP4 patient was hyperopic. No significant differences were found in OCT structural analysis during the follow-up period.

Conclusions: Retinal structure in CSNB is stationary and no specific genotype - structure correlates were identified. VA appears to be relatively stable, with rare instances of progression.

Keywords: Schubert Bornschein; congenital stationary night blindness; genotype; inherited retinal disease; longitudinal study; natural history; phenotype.