Association of PADI2 and PADI4 polymorphisms in COVID-19 host severity and non-survival

Heliyon. 2024 Mar 15;10(6):e27997. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2024.e27997. eCollection 2024 Mar 30.


Background: Enzymes of the peptidylarginine deiminase family (PADs) play a relevant role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. However, the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in their genes with COVID-19 severity and death is unknown.

Methodology: We included 1045 patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 between October 2020 and December 2021. All subjects were genotyped for PADI2 (rs1005753 and rs2235926) and PADI4 (rs11203366, rs11203367, and rs874881) SNPs by TaqMan assays and their associations with disease severity, death, and inflammatory biomarkers were evaluated.

Results: 291 patients presented had severe COVID-19 according to PaO2/FiO2, and 393 had a non-survival outcome. Carriers of the rs1005753 G/G genotype in the PADI2 gene presented susceptibility for severe COVID-19, while the heterozygous carriers in rs11203366, rs11203367, and rs874881 of the PADI4 gene showed risk of death. The GTACC haplotype in PADI2-PADI4 was associated with susceptibility to severe COVID-19, while the GCACC haplotype was a protective factor. The GCGTG haplotype was associated with severe COVID-19 but as a protective haplotype for death. Finally, the GTACC haplotype was associated with platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), the GCACC haplotype with neutrophil-to-hemoglobin and lymphocyte and the GCGTG haplotype as a protective factor for the elevation of procalcitonin, D-dimer, CRP, LCRP, NHL, SII, NLR, and PLR.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that the haplotypic combination of GTACC and some individual genotypes of PADI2 and PADI4 contribute to the subjects' susceptibility for severity and death by COVID-19.

Keywords: COVID-19; Inflammatory parameters; Outcome; PADI2; PADI4; Polymorphisms.