Far-Field Petahertz Sampling of Plasmonic Fields

Nano Lett. 2024 May 8;24(18):5506-5512. doi: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.4c00658. Epub 2024 Mar 26.

Abstract

The response of metal nanostructures to optical excitation leads to localized surface plasmon (LSP) generation with nanoscale field confinement driving applications in, for example, quantum optics and nanophotonics. Field sampling in the terahertz domain has had a tremendous impact on the ability to trace such collective excitations. Here, we extend such capabilities and introduce direct sampling of LSPs in a more relevant petahertz domain. The method allows to measure the LSP field in arbitrary nanostructures with subcycle precision. We demonstrate the technique for colloidal nanoparticles and compare the results to finite-difference time-domain calculations, which show that the build-up and dephasing of the plasmonic excitation can be resolved. Furthermore, we observe a reshaping of the spectral phase of the few-cycle pulse, and we demonstrate ad-hoc pulse shaping by tailoring the plasmonic sample. The methodology can be extended to single nanosystems and applied in exploring subcycle, attosecond phenomena.

Keywords: gold nanoparticles; petahertz field sampling; plasmon dynamics; plasmonics.