Comparative assessment of Riesling wine fault development by the electronic tongue and a sensory panel

J Food Sci. 2024 May;89(5):3006-3018. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.17036. Epub 2024 Mar 27.


Wine faults threaten brand recognition and consumer brand loyalty. The objective of this study was to compare the acuteness of e-tongue and human sensory evaluation of wine fault development in Riesling wine over 42 days of storage. Riesling wines uninoculated (control) or inoculated with 104 CFU/mL cultures of Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Acetobacter aceti, Lactobacillus brevis, or Pediococcus parvulus were assessed every 7 days with the e-tongue and a rate-all-that-apply (RATA) sensory panel. After 7 days of storage, the e-tongue detected differences in all four wine spoilage microorganism treatments, compared to control wine, with discrimination indices over 86%. The RATA sensory panel detected significant differences beginning on day 35 of storage, 28 days after the e-tongue detected differences. This study showed that the e-tongue was more sensitive than the human panel as a detection tool, without sensory fatigue. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research is useful for winemakers seeking additional instrumental methods in the early detection of wine faults. Given the results of this study, the e-tongue can be a useful tool for detecting early chemical changes in white wines that have undergone microbial spoilage, providing winemakers with time to mitigate faults before they surpass sensory thresholds.

Keywords: flaws; nondestructive; rate‐all‐that‐apply; white wine.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Electronic Nose
  • Female
  • Food Microbiology / methods
  • Food Storage / methods
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Odorants / analysis
  • Taste*
  • Wine* / analysis
  • Wine* / microbiology