Study on Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Psidium guajava Leaf Extracts

Curr Issues Mol Biol. 2024 Mar 6;46(3):2133-2143. doi: 10.3390/cimb46030137.


Guava (Psidium guajava) is a plant widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Its leaves contain a large amount of physiological molecules such as flavonoid, sesquiterpene, triterpenoid, coumarin, alkaloid, and tannin molecules with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the use of concentrated P. guajava leaf extract molecules as a functional natural material was evaluated by confirming the extract's antioxidative, antibacterial, tyrosinase activity inhibition, and collagenase activity inhibition effects and its trans-2-nonenal removal ability. As a result of the analysis of the antioxidant and antibacterial components of concentrated P. guajava leaf extract molecules through GC-MS, a large amount of aromatic hydrocarbon molecules were detected. When different concentrations of ethanol were used for extraction, the leaf extract concentrated with 70% ethanol showed the most effective active molecules. As a result of measuring DPPH radical scavenging activity, a concentration-dependent antioxidant activity was confirmed. The antioxidant activity tended to increase when the ethanol content used for extraction was increased. Molecules such as 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, caryophyllene oxide, and γ-muurolene in P. guajava leaf extract concentrate appeared to have antibacterial activities against S. aureus bacteria known to cause atopy. As ethanol content increased, the inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity was increased. In addition, when ethanol content was 50%, the concentrated leaf extract was able to remove trans-2-nonenal by 52.4%. As a result of determining the concentrated leaf extract's collagenase inhibition activity, an inhibition rate close to that of ascorbic acid, a positive control, was confirmed. The concentrated guajava leaf extract molecules were confirmed to have whitening and wrinkle-improving functionality. Thus, the P. guajava leaf extract has high potential as a food and natural cosmetic material.

Keywords: Psidium guajava; antimicrobial activities; collagenase; trans-2-nonenal inhibition; tyrosinase.