Drosophila Fog/Cta and T48 pathways have overlapping and distinct contributions to mesoderm invagination

Mol Biol Cell. 2024 May 1;35(5):ar69. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E24-02-0050. Epub 2024 Mar 27.


The regulation of the cytoskeleton by multiple signaling pathways, sometimes in parallel, is a common principle of morphogenesis. A classic example of regulation by parallel pathways is Drosophila gastrulation, where the inputs from the Folded gastrulation (Fog)/Concertina (Cta) and the T48 pathways induce apical constriction and mesoderm invagination. Whether there are distinct roles for these separate pathways in regulating the complex spatial and temporal patterns of cytoskeletal activity that accompany early embryo development is still poorly understood. We investigated the roles of the Fog/Cta and T48 pathways and found that, by themselves, the Cta and T48 pathways both promote timely mesoderm invagination and apical myosin II accumulation, with Cta being required for timely cell shape change ahead of mitotic cell division. We also identified distinct functions of T48 and Cta in regulating cellularization and the uniformity of the apical myosin II network, respectively. Our results demonstrate that both redundant and distinct functions for the Fog/Cta and T48 pathways exist.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Drosophila Proteins* / metabolism
  • Drosophila melanogaster / metabolism
  • Drosophila* / metabolism
  • Gastrulation
  • Mesoderm
  • Morphogenesis
  • Myosin Type II / metabolism


  • Drosophila Proteins
  • Myosin Type II