A systematic review of machine learning based thyroid tumor characterisation using ultrasonographic images

J Ultrasound. 2024 Jun;27(2):209-224. doi: 10.1007/s40477-023-00850-z. Epub 2024 Mar 27.


Ultrasonography is widely used to screen thyroid tumors because it is safe, easy to use, and low-cost. However, it is simultaneously affected by speckle noise and other artifacts, so early detection of thyroid abnormalities becomes difficult for the radiologist. Therefore, various researchers continuously address the limitations of sonography and improve the diagnosis potential of US images for thyroid tissue from the last three decays. Accordingly, the present study extensively reviewed various CAD systems used to classify thyroid tumor US (TTUS) images related to datasets, despeckling algorithms, segmentation algorithms, feature extraction and selection, assessment parameters, and classification algorithms. After the exhaustive review, the achievements and challenges have been reported, and build a road map for the new researchers.

Keywords: CAD system; Despeckling; Segmentation; Thyroid nodule.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Humans
  • Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods
  • Machine Learning*
  • Thyroid Gland* / diagnostic imaging
  • Thyroid Neoplasms* / diagnostic imaging
  • Ultrasonography* / methods