The Role of PSMA PET Imaging in the Classification of the Risk of Prostate Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review on the Insights to Guide an Active Surveillance Approach

Cancers (Basel). 2024 Mar 11;16(6):1122. doi: 10.3390/cancers16061122.


Background: active surveillance (AS) is a suitable strategy for patients with prostate cancer (PCa). Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is an established tool used to assess PCa. The aim of this review was to evaluate the role of PSMA imaging to guide correct risk-based classification and the AS approach in PCa patients.

Methods: The Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and PubMed/MEDLINE databases were screened to find relevant published articles.

Results: 1774 articles were revealed with the literature search. A total of 1764 articles were excluded after applying exclusion criteria (data not within the field of interest, preclinical papers, conference proceedings, reviews, or editorials). Ten studies were finally included in the review, revealing that PSMA PET could have the ability to guide risk-based classification of PCa and the choice of AS, and to guide the execution of biopsies for the research of high-grade PCa, therefore precluding AS.

Conclusion: this systematic review underlined a possible role of PSMA PET imaging in patients with PCa by correctly re-classifying them on the basis of their risk and guiding AS.

Keywords: PET; PSMA; active surveillance; nuclear medicine; positron emission tomography; prostate cancer; prostate-specific membrane antigen.

Publication types

  • Review

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.