Quantum Nonlocality: How Does Nature Do It?

Entropy (Basel). 2024 Feb 23;26(3):191. doi: 10.3390/e26030191.


In his article in Science, Nicolas Gisin claimed that quantum correlations emerge from outside space-time. We explainthat they are due to space-time symmetries. This paper is a critical review of metaphysical conclusions found in many recent articles. It advocates the importance of contextuality, Einstein -causality and global symmetries. Bell tests allow only rejecting probabilistic coupling provided by a local hidden variable model, but they do not justify metaphysical speculations about quantum nonlocality and objects which know about each other's state, even when separated by large distances. The violation of Bell inequalities in physics and in cognitive science can be explained using the notion of Bohr- contextuality. If contextual variables, describing varying experimental contexts, are correctly incorporated into a probabilistic model, then the Bell-CHSH inequalities cannot be proven and nonlocal correlations may be explained in an intuitive way. We also elucidate the meaning of statistical independence assumption incorrectly called free choice, measurement independence or no- conspiracy. Since correlation does not imply causation, the violation of statistical independence should be called contextuality; it does not restrict the experimenter's freedom of choice. Therefore, contrary to what is believed, closing the freedom-of choice loophole does not close the contextuality loophole.

Keywords: Bell tests; Bell–CHSH inequalities; contextuality loophole; freedom of choice loophole; hidden variables; local causality; measurement independence; probabilistic coupling; quantum mechanics; quantum nonlocality; space–time symmetries.

Publication types

  • Review

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This research received no external findings.