High Hydrostatic Pressure: Influences on Allergenicity, Bioactivities, and Structural and Functional Properties of Proteins from Diverse Food Sources

Foods. 2024 Mar 18;13(6):922. doi: 10.3390/foods13060922.

Abstract

High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has gained prominence in the food processing industry over the last decade. In addition to the effectiveness of microbial and enzymatic inactivation, HHP directly impacts protein structures and properties. Accordingly, this review article aims to consolidate relevant research findings elucidating the effects of HHP on protein structure, allergenicity, bioactivities, and functional properties across diverse protein sources. They encompass cereals, legumes, nuts, meat, poultry products, milk, eggs, seafood, algae, insects, seeds, and vegetables. This review provides insights into the consistent trends of HHP effects on each protein source. In conclusion, HHP induces alterations in non-covalent bonds within protein structures, leading to the unfolding of their interior regions and consequential changes in their properties. Remarkably, the allergenicity of cereals, legumes, and nuts decreases while their bioactivities and digestibility escalate. The disruption of non-covalent bonds during HHP results in the exposure of the interior hydrophobic regions to the surface microenvironment, thereby enhancing the surface hydrophobicity of proteins, particularly those derived from seeds and vegetables. HHP weakens the allergenicity and elevates the foaming properties of proteins from dairy products, including improving the gelling properties and antioxidant activities of egg proteins. Texture profiles of meat and poultry, particularly hardness, are enhanced. Furthermore, HHP demonstrates the potential to diminish the allergenicity of seafood proteins and augment insect protein bioactivities. Lastly, HHP enhances the extraction of algal bioactive components, improving their nutritional quality.

Keywords: allergenicity; high pressure processing; surface hydrophobicity; texture; unfolding.

Publication types

  • Review

Grants and funding

The APC was funded by Chiang Mai University.