Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Natural Populations of Artemisia scoparia Collected at Different Altitudes: Antibacterial, Mosquito Repellent, and Larvicidal Effects

Molecules. 2024 Mar 19;29(6):1359. doi: 10.3390/molecules29061359.


The current study aimed to evaluate the presence of chemical variations in essential oils (EOs) extracted from Artemisia scoparia growing at different altitudes and to reveal their antibacterial, mosquito larvicidal, and repellent activity. The gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of A. scoparia EOs revealed that the major compounds were capillene (9.6-31.8%), methyleugenol (0.2-26.6%), β-myrcene (1.9-21.4%), γ-terpinene (1.5-19.4%), trans-β-caryophyllene (0.8-12.4%), and eugenol (0.1-9.1%). The EO of A. scoparia collected from the city of Attock at low elevation was the most active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria (minimum inhibitory concentration of 156-1250 µg/mL) and showed the best mosquito larvicidal activity (LC50, 55.3 mg/L). The EOs of A. scoparia collected from the high-altitude areas of Abbottabad and Swat were the most repellent for females of Ae. aegypti and exhibited repellency for 120 min and 165 min, respectively. The results of the study reveal that different climatic conditions and altitudes have significant effects on the chemical compositions and the biological activity of essential oils extracted from the same species.

Keywords: Aedes aegypti; Artemisia scoparia; antibacterial; aromatic plants; bioactive compounds; chemotypes; natural remedies; pest control.

MeSH terms

  • Aedes*
  • Altitude
  • Animals
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Artemisia*
  • Female
  • Insect Repellents* / chemistry
  • Insect Repellents* / pharmacology
  • Insecticides* / chemistry
  • Larva
  • Oils, Volatile* / chemistry
  • Oils, Volatile* / pharmacology
  • Plant Oils / chemistry
  • Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes*
  • Scoparia*


  • Oils, Volatile
  • Insect Repellents
  • Insecticides
  • caryophyllene
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Plant Oils
  • Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes