Cardiometabolic profiles and proteomics associated with obesity phenotypes in a longitudinal cohort of young adults

Sci Rep. 2024 Mar 28;14(1):7384. doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-57751-2.


To assess cardiometabolic profiles and proteomics to identify biomarkers associated with the metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity. Young adults (N = 156) enrolled were classified as not having obesity, metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO) based on NCEP ATP-III criteria. Plasma proteomics at study entry were measured using Olink Cardiometabolic Explore panel. Linear regression was used to assess associations between proteomics and obesity groups as well as cardiometabolic traits of glucose, insulin, and lipid profiles at baseline and follow-up visits. Enriched biological pathways were further identified based on the significant proteomic features. Among the baseline 95 (61%) and 61 (39%) participants classified as not having obesity and having obesity (8 MHO and 53 MUHO), respectively. Eighty of the participants were followed-up with an average 4.6 years. Forty-one proteins were associated with obesity (FDR < 0.05), 29 of which had strong associations with insulin-related traits and lipid profiles (FDR < 0.05). Inflammation, immunomodulation, extracellular matrix remodeling and endoplasmic reticulum lumen functions were enriched by 40 proteins. In this study population, obesity and MHO were associated with insulin resistance and dysregulated lipid profiles. The underlying mechanism included elevated inflammation and deteriorated extracellular matrix remodeling function.

MeSH terms

  • Body Mass Index
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / complications
  • Insulin
  • Lipids
  • Obesity / metabolism
  • Obesity, Metabolically Benign*
  • Phenotype
  • Proteomics
  • Risk Factors
  • Young Adult


  • Insulin
  • Lipids