Volumetric Response and Survival of Patients With Bulky IDH-Mutated Grade 3 Glioma Managed With FET-FDG-Guided Integrated Boost IMRT

Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2024 Jun;36(6):343-352. doi: 10.1016/j.clon.2024.03.002. Epub 2024 Mar 13.


Aims: Despite relatively favourable outcomes associated with IDH-mutant grade 3 gliomas, many patients present with diffuse non-enhancing disease involving multiple brain regions, prompting concern over both durable disease control and the morbidity associated with large volume radiation therapy. This study audits volumetric response, survival and functional outcomes in this 'large volume' subgroup that undergoes intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT).

Materials and methods: From a prospective database of 187 patients with IDH-mutant grade 3 gliomas managed with IMRT between 2008 and 2020, recorded PTV was divided into quartiles. The top quartile, termed the 'large volume cohort' (LVC), was identified. IMRT involved FET-FDG guided integrated boost (59.4/54Gy in 33 fractions). Manual volumetric segmentation of baseline, four months and 13 months post-IMRT tumour were performed for T1, T2 and T1gd MRI sequences. The primary endpoint was volumetric reduction on the T1 and T2 sequences at 13 months and analysed with relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). Morbidity endpoints were assessed at year four post-IMRT and included performance status (ECOG PS) and employment outcomes.

Results: The fourth quartile (LVC) identified 44 patients for whom volumetric analysis was available. The LVC had median PTV of 320cm3 compared to 186.2cm3 for the total group. Anaplastic astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma were equally distributed and tumour sites were frontal (54%), temporal (18%) and parietal lobes (16%). Median follow-up for survivors was 71.5 months. Projected 10-year RFS and OS in LVC was 40% and 62%, compared to 53% and 62% respectively in the overall cohort. The RFS (p = 0.06) and OS (p = 0.65) of the LVC was not significantly different to other PTV quartiles; however the impact of PTV volume reached significance when analysed as a continuous variable (RFS p < 0.01; OS p = 0.02). Median T1 volumes were 26.1cm3, 8.0cm3 and 5.3cm3 at months +0, +3 and +12, respectively. The corresponding T2 volumes were 120.8cm3, 29.1cm3 and 26.3cm3. The median T1 and T2 volume reductions were 77% (q1-3: 57-92%) and 78% (q1-3: 60-85%) at 13 months post-IMRT. Initial T2 volume was associated with worse RFS (p = 0.04) but not OS (p = 0.96). There was no association between median T2 volume reduction and RFS (p = 0.77). For patients assessable at year 4 post-IMRT, no late CTCAE Grade 3/4 toxicity events were recognised. 92% of patients were ECOG PS 0-1, 45% were employed at prior capacity and 28% were working with impairment.

Conclusion: Patients with large volume IDH-mutant Grade 3 glioma demonstrated significant tumour reduction post-IMRT, and good long-term outcomes with respect to survival and functional status. Although larger IMRT volumes were associated with poorer RFS, this was also associated with the initial volume of non-enhancing tumour.

Keywords: Anaplastic glioma; IDH mutation; radiation therapy; volume reduction.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Brain Neoplasms* / diagnostic imaging
  • Brain Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Brain Neoplasms* / mortality
  • Brain Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Brain Neoplasms* / radiotherapy
  • Female
  • Fluorodeoxyglucose F18*
  • Glioma* / diagnostic imaging
  • Glioma* / genetics
  • Glioma* / mortality
  • Glioma* / pathology
  • Glioma* / radiotherapy
  • Humans
  • Isocitrate Dehydrogenase* / genetics
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mutation
  • Neoplasm Grading
  • Prospective Studies
  • Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use
  • Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated* / methods


  • Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
  • Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • Radiopharmaceuticals