LAMP1 controls CXCL10-CXCR3 axis mediated inflammatory regulation of macrophage polarization during inflammatory stimulation

Int Immunopharmacol. 2024 Mar 30:132:111929. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2024.111929. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Increased expression of CXCL10 and its receptor CXCR3 represents an inflammatory response in cells and tissues. Macrophage polarization and autophagy are major functions in inflammatory macrophages; however, the cellular functions of the CXCL10-CXCR3 axis in macrophages are not well understood. Here, we examined the role of CXCL10-CXCR3-axis-regulated autophagy in macrophage polarization. First, in non-inflammatory macrophages, whereas CXCL10 promotes M2 polarization and inhibits M1 polarization, CXCR3 antagonist AMG487 induces the opposite macrophage polarization. Next, CXCL10 promotes the expression of autophagy proteins (Atg5-Atg12 complex, p62, LC3-II, and LAMP1) and AMG487 inhibits their expression. Knockdown of LAMP1 by short interfering RNA switches the CXCL10-induced polarization from M2 to M1 in non-inflammatory macrophages. Furthermore, in inflammatory macrophages stimulated by poly(I:C), CXCL10 induces M1 polarization and AMG487 induces M2 polarization in association with a decrease in LAMP1. Finally, AMG487 alleviates lung injury after poly(I:C) treatment in mice. In conclusion, CXCL10-CXCR3 axis differentially directs macrophage polarization in inflammatory and non-inflammatory states, and autophagy protein LAMP1 acts as the switch controlling the direction of macrophage polarization by CXCL10-CXCR3.

Keywords: Autophagy; CXCR3 receptor; Inflammation; Macrophage polarization.