LAMP1 controls CXCL10-CXCR3 axis mediated inflammatory regulation of macrophage polarization during inflammatory stimulation

Int Immunopharmacol. 2024 Mar 30:132:111929. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2024.111929. Online ahead of print.


Increased expression of CXCL10 and its receptor CXCR3 represents an inflammatory response in cells and tissues. Macrophage polarization and autophagy are major functions in inflammatory macrophages; however, the cellular functions of the CXCL10-CXCR3 axis in macrophages are not well understood. Here, we examined the role of CXCL10-CXCR3-axis-regulated autophagy in macrophage polarization. First, in non-inflammatory macrophages, whereas CXCL10 promotes M2 polarization and inhibits M1 polarization, CXCR3 antagonist AMG487 induces the opposite macrophage polarization. Next, CXCL10 promotes the expression of autophagy proteins (Atg5-Atg12 complex, p62, LC3-II, and LAMP1) and AMG487 inhibits their expression. Knockdown of LAMP1 by short interfering RNA switches the CXCL10-induced polarization from M2 to M1 in non-inflammatory macrophages. Furthermore, in inflammatory macrophages stimulated by poly(I:C), CXCL10 induces M1 polarization and AMG487 induces M2 polarization in association with a decrease in LAMP1. Finally, AMG487 alleviates lung injury after poly(I:C) treatment in mice. In conclusion, CXCL10-CXCR3 axis differentially directs macrophage polarization in inflammatory and non-inflammatory states, and autophagy protein LAMP1 acts as the switch controlling the direction of macrophage polarization by CXCL10-CXCR3.

Keywords: Autophagy; CXCR3 receptor; Inflammation; Macrophage polarization.