Discovery and characterization of l-DOPA 2,3-dioxygenase from Streptomyces hygroscopicus jingganensis

Arch Biochem Biophys. 2024 Mar 30:755:109967. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2024.109967. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

The largest natural reservoir of untapped carbon can be found in the cell-wall strengthening, plant woody-tissue polymer, lignin - a polymer of catechols or 1,2-dihydroxybenzene monomers. The catecholic carbon of lignin could be valorized into feedstocks and natural products by way of catabolic and biosynthetic transformations, including the oxygen-dependent cleavage reaction of extradiol dioxygenase (EDX) enzymes. The EDX l-DOPA 2,3-dioxygenase was first discovered as part of a biosynthetic gene cluster to the natural product antibiotic, lincomycin, and also contributes to the biosyntheses of anthramycin, sibiromycin, tomaymycin, porothramycin and hormaomycin. Using these l-DOPA 2,3-dioxygenases as a starting point, we searched sequence space in order to identify new sources of dioxygenase driven natural product diversity. A "vicinal-oxygen-chelate (VOC) family protein" from Streptomyces hygroscopicus jingganensis was identified using bioinformatic methods and biochemically investigated for dioxygenase activity against a suite of natural and synthetic catechols. Steady-state oxygen consumption assays were used to screen and identify substrates, and a steady-state kinetic model of oxygen consumption was developed to evaluate activity of the S. hygroscopicus jingganensis VOC-family-protein with respect to activity of l-DOPA 2,3-dioxygenases from Streptomyces lincolnensis and Streptomyces sclerotialus. Lastly, these data were integrated with steady-state kinetic methods to observe the formation of the EDX cleavage product with UV-visible spectroscopy. The genomic context and enzymatic activity of the S. hygroscopicus jingganensis VOC family protein are consistent with a l-DOPA 2,3-dioxygenase contained within a cryptic biosynthetic pathway.