Optimization of the extrusion parameters for the production of lentil-quinoa extrudates enriched with pumpkin

Food Sci Technol Int. 2024 Mar 31:10820132241243240. doi: 10.1177/10820132241243240. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

This study aimed to develop a protein-fiber-rich extruded product based on yellow lentil, quinoa, and pumpkin flours. The final product quality is affected by formulation and extrusion parameters. Therefore, the effect of the pumpkin-flour ratio (A: 25-75%) and feed moisture content (C: 14-22%) besides barrel screw speed (B: 120-180 rpm) on the physical attributes of extrudates was investigated. Box-Behnken experimental design and stepwise-response surface method were used to analyze the effects of various process variables and ingredients on extrudates. The pumpkin-flour ratio had a significant positive correlation with bulk density (BD), water solubility index (WSI), and oil absorption index. Whereas the correlation between pumpkin-flour ratio with hardness, porosity, expansion ratio (ER), and water absorption index (WAI) was negative (P < 0.05). The feed moisture content positively affected the water activity (aw) and WAI and negatively affected the harness of samples (P < 0.05). The screw speed had a positive effect on ER, porosity, and WSI, whereas it negatively influenced the hardness, BD, and aw. By increasing the pumpkin-flour ratio, air cell size and wall thickness of samples had been decreased. The results showed that 44.2% pumpkin flour, 22% feed moisture, and 172.1 rpm screw speed gave an optimized product. There was no significant difference between predicted and experimental values (except for ER). The optimized snack was a good source of fiber (around 15%), protein (17.3%), and antioxidants (TPC = 15.28 mg GAE.g-1 and antiradical scavenging activity (DPPH) = 33.66%). The caloric value of the optimized snack was 362.6 cal.100g-1. The current formulation can be considered as the base of snack food or plant-based meat alternatives.

Keywords: Extrusion process; functional-properties; lentil–quinoa–pumpkin; microstructure; stepwise-regression.