Th17/Treg balance: the bloom and wane in the pathophysiology of sepsis

Front Immunol. 2024 Mar 15:15:1356869. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2024.1356869. eCollection 2024.


Sepsis is a multi-organ dysfunction characterized by an unregulated host response to infection. It is associated with high morbidity, rapid disease progression, and high mortality. Current therapies mainly focus on symptomatic treatment, such as blood volume supplementation and antibiotic use, but their effectiveness is limited. Th17/Treg balance, based on its inflammatory property, plays a crucial role in determining the direction of the inflammatory response and the regression of organ damage in sepsis patients. This review provides a summary of the changes in T-helper (Th) 17 cell and regulatory T (Treg) cell differentiation and function during sepsis, the heterogeneity of Th17/Treg balance in the inflammatory response, and the relationship between Th17/Treg balance and organ damage. Th17/Treg balance exerts significant control over the bloom and wanes in host inflammatory response throughout sepsis.

Keywords: Th17; Treg; balance; pathophysiology; sepsis.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Disease Progression
  • Humans
  • Sepsis* / therapy
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory*
  • Th17 Cells

Grants and funding

The author(s) declare financial support was received for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. This work was supported by the Fundamental Research Project of Jinhua Hospital Affiliated to Zhejiang University (No. JY2022-5-02).