Epitranscriptomic orchestrations: Unveiling the regulatory paradigm of m6A, A-to-I editing, and m5C in breast cancer via long noncoding RNAs and microRNAs

Cell Biochem Funct. 2024 Apr;42(3):e3996. doi: 10.1002/cbf.3996.


Breast cancer (BC) poses a persistent global health challenge, particularly in countries with elevated human development indices linked to factors such as increased life expectancy, education, and wealth. Despite therapeutic progress, challenges persist, and the role of epitranscriptomic RNA modifications in BC remains inadequately understood. The epitranscriptome, comprising diverse posttranscriptional modifications on RNA molecules, holds the potential to intricately modulate RNA function and regulation, implicating dysregulation in various diseases, including BC. Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), acting as posttranscriptional regulators, influence physiological and pathological processes, including cancer. RNA modifications in long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) add an extra layer to gene expression control. This review delves into recent insights into epitranscriptomic RNA modifications, such as N-6-methyladenosine (m6A), adenine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing, and 5-methylcytosine (m5C), specifically in the context of lncRNA and miRNAs in BC, highlighting their potential implications in BC development and progression. Understanding this intricate regulatory landscape is vital for deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying BC and identifying potential therapeutic targets.

Keywords: A‐to‐I editing; breast cancer; lncRNA; m5C; m6A; miRNA.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Breast Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Breast Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • MicroRNAs* / genetics
  • MicroRNAs* / metabolism
  • RNA, Long Noncoding* / genetics
  • RNA, Long Noncoding* / metabolism


  • MicroRNAs
  • RNA, Long Noncoding
  • 6-methyladenine
  • Adenine