Assessment and management of vitamin status in children with CKD stages 2-5, on dialysis and post-transplantation: clinical practice points from the Pediatric Renal Nutrition Taskforce

Pediatr Nephrol. 2024 Apr 4. doi: 10.1007/s00467-024-06303-x. Online ahead of print.


Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at risk for vitamin deficiency or excess. Vitamin status can be affected by diet, supplements, kidney function, medications, and dialysis. Little is known about vitamin requirements in CKD, leading to practice variation.The Pediatric Renal Nutrition Taskforce (PRNT), an international team of pediatric kidney dietitians and pediatric nephrologists, was established to develop evidence-based clinical practice points (CPPs) to address challenges and to serve as a resource for nutritional care. Questions were formulated using PICO (Patient, Intervention, Comparator, Outcomes), and literature searches undertaken to explore clinical practice from assessment to management of vitamin status in children with CKD stages 2-5, on dialysis and post-transplantation (CKD2-5D&T). The CPPs were developed and finalized using a Delphi consensus approach. We present six CPPs for vitamin management for children with CKD2-5D&T. We address assessment, intervention, and monitoring. We recommend avoiding supplementation of vitamin A and suggest water-soluble vitamin supplementation for those on dialysis. In the absence of evidence, a consistent structured approach to vitamin management that considers assessment and monitoring from dietary, physical, and biochemical viewpoints is needed. Careful consideration of the impact of accumulation, losses, comorbidities, and medications needs to be explored for the individual child and vitamin before supplementation can be considered. When supplementing, care needs to be taken not to over-prescribe. Research recommendations are suggested.

Keywords: Children; Chronic kidney disease; Clinical practice points; Pediatric Renal Nutrition Taskforce; Vitamins.

Publication types

  • Review