Case report: Primary vulvar adenocarcinoma of mammary gland type-its genetic characteristics by focused next-generation sequencing

Pathol Oncol Res. 2024 Mar 20:30:1611376. doi: 10.3389/pore.2024.1611376. eCollection 2024.


Mammary-like vulvar adenocarcinoma (MLVA) is an exceedingly rare subtype of vulvar adenocarcinoma that shares features with mammary gland tissue. Due to its rarity and lack of consensus, MLVA presents diagnostic challenges to pathologists. We present the case of a 59-year-old female with an ulcerated mass on the right side of the external genitalia, diagnosed as MLVA. Comprehensive immunohistochemistry (IHC) and gene sequencing studies were performed to characterize the tumor. IHC analysis revealed triple expression of hormonal receptors (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2), supporting the mammary gland origin of the tumor. Gene sequencing identified unique genetic mutations associated with the expression of hormonal markers. One fusion gene (ERBB2-NAGLU) has not been reported in any tumors, and other mutations with unique mutation types have not been previously reported in MLVA. Our findings shed light on the molecular characteristics of MLV and may help improve the diagnosis and treatment of this rare type of vulvar adenocarcinoma.

Keywords: MLVA; immune markers; immunohistochemical features; mutations by NGS; triple positive.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma* / pathology
  • Breast / pathology
  • Female
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Humans
  • Mammary Glands, Human* / metabolism
  • Mammary Glands, Human* / pathology
  • Middle Aged
  • Vulvar Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Vulvar Neoplasms* / metabolism
  • Vulvar Neoplasms* / pathology