Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions for Urinary Tract Infections in Outpatient Settings: A Narrative Review

Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2024 Jun;38(2):277-294. doi: 10.1016/j.idc.2024.03.006. Epub 2024 Apr 4.


Inappropriate antibiotic choice or duration of therapy for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in outpatients is common and is a major contributor to antibiotic overuse. Most studies on outpatient antibiotic stewardship for UTIs follow a pre-design or post-design with a multifaceted intervention; these trials generally have found improvement in appropriateness of antibiotic use for UTI. Audit and feedback was one of the most commonly employed strategies across these trials but may not be sustainable. Future research on antibiotic stewardship for UTIs in outpatients should measure both effectiveness and implementation success.

Keywords: Antibiotic stewardship; Audit and feedback; Outpatient; Primary care; Urinary tract infection (UTI).

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Ambulatory Care / standards
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents* / administration & dosage
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents* / therapeutic use
  • Antimicrobial Stewardship* / methods
  • Humans
  • Outpatients*
  • Urinary Tract Infections* / drug therapy


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents