Characterizing morphological alterations in blood related disorders through Atomic Force Microscopy

Nanotheranostics. 2024 Mar 25;8(3):330-343. doi: 10.7150/ntno.93206. eCollection 2024.


Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a very flexible method that can create topographical images from a range of materials and image surfaces. Significantly, AFM has emerged as an invaluable tool for dissecting the morphology and biochemical aspects of body cells and tissues. The high-resolution imaging capabilities of AFM enable researchers to discern alterations in cell morphology and understand the underlying mechanisms of diseases. It contributes to understanding disease etiology and progression. In the context of this review, our focus will be directed towards elucidating the pivotal role of AFM in analysis of blood related disorders. Through detailed comparisons with normal cells, we delve into the alterations in size, shape, and surface characteristics induced by conditions such as cancer, diabetes, anaemia, and infections caused by pathogens. In essence, various work described in this article highlights to bridge the gap between traditional microscopy and in-depth analysis of blood-related pathologies, which in turn offers valuable perspectives for both research and clinical applications in the field.

Keywords: AFM; Anemia; Blood related disorders; Cancer; Diabetes; Diagnosis; Genetics; Pathogens; Therapy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Hematologic Diseases* / diagnostic imaging
  • Humans
  • Microscopy, Atomic Force* / methods