Misinformation and COVID-19 vaccine uptake hesitancy among frontline workers in Tanzania: Do demographic variables matter?

Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2024 Dec 31;20(1):2324527. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2024.2324527. Epub 2024 Apr 7.


Although COVID-19 vaccination has been widely considered as an important remedy to confront COVID-19, people remain hesitant to take it. The objective of this study was to assess the moderation effects of demographic characteristics on the relationship between forms of misinformation and COVID-19 vaccine uptake hesitancy among frontline workers in Dar es Salaam and Dodoma, Tanzania. Using a sample of 200 respondents, it assessed the differences in ratings on misinformation regarding COVID-19 vaccine based on respondents' demographics. The study used a Five-point Likert scale questionnaire distributed through snowball sampling to frontline workers from Dar es Salaam and Dodoma regions. Data was analyzed using binary logistic regression. It was found that the forms of misinformation revealed were manipulated imposters, satire, fabricated contents and false contents with their connection, which they influenced COVID-19 hesitancy significantly. With exception of age, that significantly moderated hesitancy, this study uncovers that, sex and education level moderated insignificantly in predicting those who are misinformed; misinformed individuals are not any less educated or not based on one's sex, different than individuals who are informed. The study informs policy makers on devising appropriate strategies to promote COVID-19 vaccination uptake among the different contextual demographic variables. Promotion of information, media and health literacy to the general public should be considered to deter spreading of vaccine-related misinformation.

Keywords: COVID-19 vaccine; Misinformation; Tanzania; age; demographic variables; education; frontline workers; gender; vaccine uptake; vaccine uptake hesitancy.

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • COVID-19* / prevention & control
  • Demography
  • Educational Status
  • Humans
  • Tanzania
  • Vaccination


  • COVID-19 Vaccines

Grants and funding

The work was not funded by any supporting body.