Quantification of sixteen cannabinoids in hemp seed edible oils and the influence of thermal processing on cannabinoid contents and profiles

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2024 May;41(5):550-562. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2024.2319270. Epub 2024 Apr 8.


To investigate cannabinoid content and profiles, 16 cannabinoids were quantified in 30 commercial hemp seed edible oils. In addition, one hemp seed oil was subjected to thermal processing up to 200 °C for up to 60 min. UHPLC-MS/MS was used for analysis. The content of cannabinoids in the samples ranged from 9 to 279 mg kg-1 (sum) and for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) from 0.2 to 6.7 mg kg-1. Three samples exceeded the EU Δ9-THC equivalent maximum levels of 7.5 mg kg-1 for hemp seed oils. Cannabinoid profiles can provide indications of different product characteristics (e.g. degree of processing, variety of plant material). Furthermore, intense thermal processing (200 °C, 60 min) led to 38% decrease in sum cannabinoid content (sum of all analysed cannabinoids in this study), 99% decrease in cannabinoid acids, and 22% increase in Δ9-THC.

Keywords: CBD; THCA; food processing; tandem mass spectrometry; Δ9-THC.

MeSH terms

  • Cannabinoids* / analysis
  • Cannabis* / chemistry
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Food Contamination / analysis
  • Hot Temperature*
  • Plant Extracts*
  • Plant Oils* / analysis
  • Plant Oils* / chemistry
  • Seeds* / chemistry
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry


  • Cannabinoids
  • Plant Oils
  • hempseed oil
  • Plant Extracts