SNORA69 is up-regulated in the lateral habenula of individuals with major depressive disorder

Sci Rep. 2024 Apr 9;14(1):8258. doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-58278-2.


Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex and potentially debilitating illness whose etiology and pathology remains unclear. Non-coding RNAs have been implicated in MDD, where they display differential expression in the brain and the periphery. In this study, we quantified small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) expression by small RNA sequencing in the lateral habenula (LHb) of individuals with MDD (n = 15) and psychiatrically-healthy controls (n = 15). We uncovered five snoRNAs that exhibited differential expression between MDD and controls (FDR < 0.01). Specifically, SNORA69 showed increased expression in MDD and was technically validated via RT-qPCR. We further investigated the expression of Snora69 in the LHb and peripheral blood of an unpredicted chronic mild stress (UCMS) mouse model of depression. Snora69 was specifically up-regulated in mice that underwent the UCMS paradigm. SNORA69 is known to guide pseudouridylation onto 5.8S and 18S rRNAs. We quantified the relative abundance of pseudouridines on 5.8S and 18S rRNA in human post-mortem LHb samples and found increased abundance of pseudouridines in the MDD group. Overall, our findings indicate the importance of brain snoRNAs in the pathology of MDD. Future studies characterizing SNORA69's role in MDD pathology is warranted.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Depressive Disorder, Major* / genetics
  • Habenula* / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 18S
  • RNA, Small Nucleolar / genetics
  • RNA, Small Nucleolar / metabolism


  • RNA, Ribosomal, 18S
  • RNA, Small Nucleolar

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