PD-L1+ macrophages suppress T cell-mediated anticancer immunity

Oncoimmunology. 2024 Apr 4;13(1):2338951. doi: 10.1080/2162402X.2024.2338951. eCollection 2024.


Recently, we showed that an autologous DC-based vaccine induces an increase in immunosuppressive PD-L1+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) both in the tumor and the tumor draining lymph nodes, thereby blunting the efficacy of therapeutic immunization. Only the combination of the DC vaccine with anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibition, but not the use of antibodies targeting PD-1 alone, was able to set off CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated tumor suppression in mice. In sum, we delineated a PD-L1 checkpoint blockade-based strategy to avoid TAM-induced T cell exhaustion during DC vaccine therapy.

Keywords: Cancer; DC vaccine; Immunotherapy.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • B7-H1 Antigen*
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes
  • Macrophages
  • Mice
  • T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic
  • Vaccines*


  • B7-H1 Antigen
  • Vaccines

Grants and funding

The author(s) reported that there is no funding associated with the work featured in this article.