Further delineation of phenotype and genotype of Kenny-Caffey syndrome type 2 (phenotype and genotype of KCS type 2)

Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2024 Apr;12(4):e2433. doi: 10.1002/mgg3.2433.


Background: Kenny-Caffey syndrome type 2 (KCS2) is an extremely rare inherited disorder characterized by proportionate short stature, skeletal defects, ocular and dental abnormalities, and transient hypocalcemia. It is caused by variants in FAM111A gene. Diagnosis of KCS2 can be challenging because of its similarities to other syndromes, the absence of clear hallmarks and the deficient number of genetically confirmed cases. Here, we aimed to further delineate and summarize the genotype and phenotype of KCS2, in order to get a better understanding of this rare disorder, and promote early diagnosis and intervention.

Methods: We present clinical and genetic characteristics of eight newly affected individuals with KCS2 from six families, including one family with three individuals found to be a father-to-daughter transmission, adding to the limited literature. Furthermore, we performed a review of genetically confirmed KCS2 cases in PubMed, MEDLINE and CNKI databases.

Results: There were six females and two males in our cohort. All the patients presented with short stature (100.0%). Clinical manifestations included ocular defects such as hypermetropia (5/8), dental problems such as defective dentition (3/8) and dental caries (3/8), skeletal and brain anomalies such as delayed closure of anterior fontanelle (6/8), cerebral calcification (3/8), cortical thickening (3/8) and medullary stenosis (4/8) of tubular bones. Endocrinologic abnormalities included hypoparathyroidism (5/8) and hypocalcemia (3/8). One male patient had micropenis and microorchidism. All cases harboured missense variants of FAM111A, and nucleotides c.1706 arose as a mutational hotspot, with seven individuals harbouring a c.1706G>A (p.Arg569His) variant, and one child harbouring a c.1531T>C (p.Tyr511His) variant. Literature review yielded a total of 46 patients from 20 papers. Data analysis showed that short stature, hypoparathyroidism and hypocalcemia, ocular and dental defects, skeletal features including cortical thickening and medullary stenosis of tubular bones, and seizures/spasms were present in more than 70% of the reported KCS2 cases.

Conclusion: We provide detailed characteristics of the largest KCS2 group in China and present the first genetically confirmed instance of father-to-daughter transmission of KCS2. Our study confirms that Arg569His is the hot spot variant and summarizes the typical phenotypes of KCS2, which would help early diagnosis and intervention.

Keywords: FAM111A; Kenny–Caffey syndrome type 2; genotype; hypocalcemia; hypoparathyroidism; phenotype; short stature.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Constriction, Pathologic
  • Dental Caries*
  • Dwarfism*
  • Female
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Hyperostosis, Cortical, Congenital*
  • Hypocalcemia* / genetics
  • Hypoparathyroidism* / genetics
  • Male
  • Phenotype

Supplementary concepts

  • Kenny-Caffey syndrome, type 2