Effectiveness of Clopidogrel vs Alternative P2Y12 Inhibitors Based on the ABCD-GENE Score

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2024 Apr 16;83(15):1370-1381. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2024.02.015.


Background: An ABCD-GENE (age, body mass index, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, and CYP2C19 genetic variants) score ≥10 predicts reduced clopidogrel effectiveness, but its association with response to alternative therapy remains unclear.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between ABCD-GENE score and the effectiveness of clopidogrel vs alternative P2Y12 inhibitor (prasugrel or ticagrelor) therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: A total of 4,335 patients who underwent PCI, CYP2C19 genotyping, and P2Y12 inhibitor treatment were included. The primary outcome was major atherothrombotic events (MAE) within 1 year after PCI. Cox regression was performed to assess event risk in clopidogrel-treated (reference) vs alternatively treated patients, with stabilized inverse probability weights derived from exposure propensity scores after stratifying by ABCD-GENE score and further by CYP2C19 loss-of-function (LOF) genotype.

Results: Among patients with scores <10 (n = 3,200), MAE was not different with alternative therapy vs clopidogrel (weighted HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.65-1.22; P = 0.475). The risk for MAE also did not significantly differ by treatment among patients with scores ≥10 (n = 1,135; weighted HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.51-1.11; P = 0.155). Among CYP2C19 LOF allele carriers, MAE risk appeared lower with alternative therapy in both the group with scores <10 (weighted HR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.25-1.01; P = 0.052) and the group with scores ≥10 (weighted HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.29-0.80; P = 0.004), while there was no difference in the group with scores <10 and no LOF alleles (weighted HR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.70-1.51; P = 0.885).

Conclusions: These data support the use of alternative therapy over clopidogrel in CYP2C19 LOF allele carriers after PCI, regardless of ABCD-GENE score, while clopidogrel is as effective as alternative therapy in non-LOF patients with scores <10.

Keywords: CYP2C19; clopidogrel; genetic testing; percutaneous coronary intervention; precision medicine.

MeSH terms

  • Clopidogrel
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 / genetics
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention* / adverse effects
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors*
  • Ticagrelor / therapeutic use
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Clopidogrel
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19
  • Ticagrelor