A Comparative In Vitro Analysis of Antimicrobial Effectiveness and Compressive Strength of Ginger and Clove-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement

Cureus. 2024 Mar 11;16(3):e55964. doi: 10.7759/cureus.55964. eCollection 2024 Mar.


Background Glass ionomer cement (GIC) is widely recognized for its self-adhesive characteristics and biocompatibility, making it commonly used as a restorative material. However, challenges related to limited antibacterial effectiveness and relatively low mechanical properties have hindered its widespread clinical use. Clove and ginger are recognized for their potent antimicrobial activity against numerous pathogenic microorganisms. The present study aims to enhance the clinical applicability of GIC by modifying it with clove and ginger extract. Aim The objective of the study is to assess the antimicrobial effectiveness and compressive strength of GIC modified with ginger and clove extract. Materials and methods Ginger and clove extracts were prepared and incorporated into conventional GIC at three concentrations for each, creating ginger-modified GIC groups (Group A, Group B, and Group C) and clove-modified GIC groups (Group D, Group E, and Group F), with Group G as the control (conventional GIC without modification). The antimicrobial assessment was conducted on disc-shaped GIC specimens (3.0 mm height x 6.0 mm diameter) prepared using molds. Bacterial strains were used to evaluate antimicrobial properties, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays conducted at intervals of one to four hours for both modified and unmodified groups. Compressive strength specimens were prepared using cylindrical molds (6.0 mm height × 4.0 mm diameter), according to the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) guidelines. The evaluation was conducted using a Zwick universal testing machine (ElectroPuls® E3000, Instron, Bangalore, India), with the highest force at the point of specimen fracture recorded to determine compressive strength. Statistical analysis was conducted utilizing a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) alongside Tukey's post hoc test, with a significance threshold set at p < 0.01. Results The antimicrobial effectiveness of clove and ginger-modified GIC was assessed through a MIC assay, revealing a statistically significant improvement in antimicrobial potency against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus within the modified groups compared to the control group (p < 0.01). Increased extract concentration correlated with enhanced antimicrobial activity. Clove-modified GIC exhibited superior antimicrobial efficacy compared to ginger extract. Compressive strength was higher in clove-modified GIC groups (p < 0.01), with Group F showing a maximum value of 175.88 MPa, while other modified groups demonstrated similar results to the control, with a value of 166.81 MPa (p > 0.01). Conclusion The study concludes that both clove-modified GIC and ginger-modified GIC exhibited antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species. The antimicrobial activity was notably higher in clove-modified GIC compared to ginger-modified GIC. Additionally, the compressive strength of clove-modified GIC surpassed all other groups. Thus, clove-modified GIC emerges as a promising restorative material for addressing recurrent caries. Future investigation is necessary to assess the long-term durability of the material.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity; clove; ginger extract; modified glass ionomer cement; restorative dentistry; strength.