Identification and validation of anoikis-related genes to clarify the prognosis and immune mechanisms of patients with low-grade glioma

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2024 Jun 4:711:149894. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2024.149894. Epub 2024 Apr 5.


Background: Low-grade glioma (LGG) has an extremely poor prognosis, and the mechanism leading to malignant development has not been determined. The aim of our study was to clarify the function and mechanism of anoikis and TIMP1 in the malignant progression of LGG.

Methods: We screened 7 anoikis-related genes from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases to construct a prognostic-predicting model. The study assessed the clinical prognosis, pathological characteristics, and immune cell infiltration in both high- and low-risk groups. Additionally, the potential modulatory effects of TIMP1 on proliferation, migration, and anoikis in LGG were investigated both in vivo and in vitro.

Results: In this study, we identified seven critical genes, namely, PTGS2, CCND1, TIMP1, PDK4, LGALS3, CDKN1A, and CDKN2A. Kaplan‒Meier (K‒M) curves demonstrated a significant correlation between clinical features and overall survival (OS), and single-cell analysis and mutation examination emphasized the heterogeneity and pivotal role of hub gene expression imbalances in LGG development. Immune cell infiltration and microenvironment analysis further elucidated the relationships between key genes and immune cells. In addition, TIMP1 promoted the malignant progression of LGG in both in vitro and in vivo models.

Conclusions: This study confirmed that TIMP1 promoted the malignant progression of LGG by inhibiting anoikis, providing insights into LGG pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets.

Keywords: Anoikis; Immune infiltration; Low-grade glioma; Macrophage genes; Single-cell RNA sequencing.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anoikis* / genetics
  • Brain Neoplasms / genetics
  • Brain Neoplasms / immunology
  • Brain Neoplasms / mortality
  • Brain Neoplasms / pathology
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Proliferation / genetics
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Glioma* / genetics
  • Glioma* / immunology
  • Glioma* / pathology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Nude
  • Neoplasm Grading
  • Prognosis
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1* / genetics
  • Tumor Microenvironment / genetics
  • Tumor Microenvironment / immunology


  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1
  • TIMP1 protein, human