Chromatin context-dependent regulation and epigenetic manipulation of prime editing

Cell. 2024 May 9;187(10):2411-2427.e25. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2024.03.020. Epub 2024 Apr 11.


We set out to exhaustively characterize the impact of the cis-chromatin environment on prime editing, a precise genome engineering tool. Using a highly sensitive method for mapping the genomic locations of randomly integrated reporters, we discover massive position effects, exemplified by editing efficiencies ranging from ∼0% to 94% for an identical target site and edit. Position effects on prime editing efficiency are well predicted by chromatin marks, e.g., positively by H3K79me2 and negatively by H3K9me3. Next, we developed a multiplex perturbational framework to assess the interaction of trans-acting factors with the cis-chromatin environment on editing outcomes. Applying this framework to DNA repair factors, we identify HLTF as a context-dependent repressor of prime editing. Finally, several lines of evidence suggest that active transcriptional elongation enhances prime editing. Consistent with this, we show we can robustly decrease or increase the efficiency of prime editing by preceding it with CRISPR-mediated silencing or activation, respectively.

Keywords: DNA damage repair; cis x trans interactions; cis-chromatin effect; epigenome editing; genome engineering; prime editing.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • CRISPR-Cas Systems* / genetics
  • Chromatin* / genetics
  • Chromatin* / metabolism
  • Epigenesis, Genetic*
  • Gene Editing* / methods
  • Histone Code
  • Histones / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism


  • Chromatin
  • Histones
  • Transcription Factors