Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of the EIN3/EIL Transcription Factor Gene Family in Doubled Haploid (DH) Poplar

Int J Mol Sci. 2024 Apr 8;25(7):4116. doi: 10.3390/ijms25074116.


Ethylene (ET) is an important phytohormone that regulates plant growth, development and stress responses. The ethylene-insensitive3/ethylene-insensitive3-like (EIN3/EIL) transcription factor family, as a key regulator of the ET signal transduction pathway, plays an important role in regulating the expression of ET-responsive genes. Although studies of EIN3/EIL family members have been completed in many species, their role in doubled haploid (DH) poplar derived from another culture of diploid Populus simonii × P. nigra (donor tree, DT) remains ambiguous. In this study, a total of seven EIN3/EIL gene family members in the DH poplar genome were identified. Basic physical and chemical property analyses of these genes were performed, and these proteins were predicted to be localized to the nucleus. According to the phylogenetic relationship, EIN3/EIL genes were divided into two groups, and the genes in the same group had a similar gene structure and conserved motifs. The expression patterns of EIN3/EIL genes in the apical buds of different DH poplar plants were analyzed based on transcriptome data. At the same time, the expression patterns of PsnEIL1, PsnEIN3, PsnEIL4 and PsnEIL5 genes in different tissues of different DH plants were detected via RT-qPCR, including the apical buds, young leaves, functional leaves, xylem, cambium and roots. The findings presented above indicate notable variations in the expression levels of PsnEIL genes across various tissues of distinct DH plants. Finally, the PsnEIL1 gene was overexpressed in DT, and the transgenic plants showed a dwarf phenotype, indicating that the PsnEIL1 gene was involved in regulating the growth and development of poplar. In this study, the EIN3/EIL gene family of DH poplar was analyzed and functionally characterized, which provides a theoretical basis for the future exploration of the EIN3/EIL gene function.

Keywords: EIN3/EIL; doubled haploid (DH) poplar; expression analysis; identification.

MeSH terms

  • Ethylenes
  • Haploidy
  • Phylogeny
  • Populus* / genetics


  • ethylene
  • Ethylenes