Near-Infrared-II Nanomaterials for Activatable Photodiagnosis and Phototherapy

Chemistry. 2024 Jun 12;30(33):e202400816. doi: 10.1002/chem.202400816. Epub 2024 May 22.


Near-Infrared-II (NIR-II) spans wavelengths between 1,000 to 1,700 nanometers, featuring deep tissue penetration and reduced tissue scattering and absorption characteristics, providing robust support for cancer treatment and tumor imaging research. This review explores the utilization of activatable NIR-II photodiagnosis and phototherapy based on tumor microenvironments (e. g., reactive oxygen species, pH, glutathione, hypoxia) and external stimulation (e. g., laser, ultrasound, photothermal) for precise tumor treatment and imaging. Special emphasis is placed on the advancements and advantages of activatable NIR-II nanomedicines in novel therapeutic modalities like photodynamic therapy, photothermal therapy, and photoacoustic imaging. This encompasses achieving deep tumor penetration, real-time monitoring of the treatment process, and obtaining high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio images even at low material concentrations. Lastly, from a clinical perspective, the challenges faced by activatable NIR-II phototherapy are discussed, alongside potential strategies to overcome these hurdles.

Keywords: Near-Infrared-II; activatable; photodiagnosis; phototherapy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Infrared Rays*
  • Nanostructures* / chemistry
  • Nanostructures* / therapeutic use
  • Neoplasms* / diagnostic imaging
  • Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Photoacoustic Techniques / methods
  • Photochemotherapy
  • Photosensitizing Agents / chemistry
  • Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use
  • Phototherapy / methods
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Tumor Microenvironment


  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Photosensitizing Agents