Influence of Microbiota on Tumor Immunotherapy

Int J Biol Sci. 2024 Mar 31;20(6):2264-2294. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.91771. eCollection 2024.


The role of the microbiome in immunotherapy has recently garnered substantial attention, with molecular studies and clinical trials providing emerging evidence on the pivotal influence of the microbiota in enhancing therapeutic outcomes via immune response modulation. However, the impact of microbial communities can considerably vary across individuals and different immunotherapeutic approaches, posing prominent challenges in harnessing their potential. In this comprehensive review, we outline the current research applications in tumor immunotherapy and delve into the possible mechanisms through which immune function is influenced by microbial communities in various body sites, encompassing those in the gut, extraintestinal barrier, and intratumoral environment. Furthermore, we discuss the effects of diverse microbiome-based strategies, including probiotics, prebiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and the targeted modulation of specific microbial taxa, and antibiotic treatments on cancer immunotherapy. All these strategies potentially have a profound impact on immunotherapy and pave the way for personalized therapeutic approaches and predictive biomarkers.

Keywords: antibiotic; fecal microbiota transplantation; immunotherapy; microbiota.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy
  • Microbiota*
  • Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Probiotics* / therapeutic use