The addition of mammalian cell culture medium impacts nanoparticle toxicity in zebrafish

Toxicol Rep. 2024 Apr 6:12:422-429. doi: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2024.04.002. eCollection 2024 Jun.


Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are ubiquitous in contemporary applications, yet their environmental and human health impacts remain inadequately understood. This study addresses the challenge of identifying potential risks associated with ENM exposure by highlighting the significant variability in existing research methodologies. Without a systematic collection of toxicological data that encompasses standardized materials, relevant platforms, and assays, the task of identifying potential risks linked to ENM exposure becomes an intricate challenge. In vitro assessments often use media rich in ionic species, such as RPMI and fetal bovine serum (FBS). Zebrafish embryos, known to develop normally in low-ionic environments, were exposed to Cerium Oxide, Zinc Oxide, and Graphene Oxides in different media at varying concentrations. Here, we discovered that zebrafish embryos tolerated a mix of 80 % RPMI, 2 % FBS, and 1 % antibiotic cocktail. The results revealed that adverse effects observed in zebrafish with certain nanomaterials in Ultra-Pure (UP) water were mitigated in cell culture medium, emphasizing the importance of revisiting previously considered non-toxic materials in vitro. The zebrafish results underscore the importance of utilizing a multidimensional in vivo platform to gauge the biological activity of nanomaterials accurately.

Keywords: Cell culture media; Cerium Oxide; Graphene Oxide; Zebrafish; Zinc Oxide; embryonic development; engineered nanomaterials.