Endothelial Mitochondria-Associated Membranes (MAMs) Isolation by Percoll Step Gradients

Methods Mol Biol. 2024:2782:113-122. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-3754-8_8.


Mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) are regions where the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) interacts with mitochondria and regulate lipid trafficking, calcium signaling, ER stress, and inflammation activation. Isolation of MAMs from endothelial cells is vital for studying insight into the immune regulation of many inflammatory diseases. Endothelial cells (ECs) are critical innate immune cells due to their paracrine function of secreting interleukins, chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors, as well as expressing levels of pattern recognition receptors including toll-like receptors (TLRs). Furthermore, ECs regulate and recruit monocytes by expressing adhesion molecules including vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), P-selectin, and E-selectin, to facilitate monocyte diapedesis in areas of damage and inflammation. This protocol consists of step-by-step instructions on isolating pure MAMs and other subcellular fractions from endothelial cells, which is critical to understanding ER and mitochondria crosstalks in endothelial functions in health and disease.

Keywords: Endoplasmic reticulum; Endothelial cells; Immunity; Inflammation; Mitochondria; Mitochondria-associated membranes; Subcellular fractions.

MeSH terms

  • Endothelial Cells* / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Mitochondria / metabolism
  • Mitochondria Associated Membranes*
  • Povidone*
  • Silicon Dioxide*


  • Percoll
  • Povidone
  • Silicon Dioxide