67Ga scintigraphy was performed in 44 patients with various biopsy proven forms of renal disease and in a further 64 patients, some with clinically diagnosed renal disease and some with non-renal disorders. Renal uptake of gallium at 48 hours was graded by two blinded observers and by tissue ratios determined by computer. All 11 patients with biopsy proven acute drug-induced interstitial nephritis demonstrated intense, diffuse, bilateral renal 67Ga uptake, a phenomenon observed in only five of the other 30 patients with biopsy proven renal disease and in four of the 64 patients with clinical diagnoses only. No patient with acute tubular necrosis demonstrated significant renal gallium uptake. It is suggested that 67Ga scintigraphy is an excellent screening test for the presence of acute interstitial nephritis and helps to identify which patients with unexplained acute renal failure require renal biopsy.