Renal manifestations in adult-onset Still's disease: a systematic review

Rheumatol Int. 2024 Apr 16. doi: 10.1007/s00296-024-05578-5. Online ahead of print.


Objective: We aimed to review the literature on the clinical presentation, renal pathology, treatment, and outcome of renal manifestations in adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD).

Methods: We used PRISMA guidelines for our systematic review and included all English-language original articles from inception till September 15, 2023, on AOSD and kidney involvement in any form. Data on patient demographics, diagnostic criteria, clinical presentation, renal pathology, treatment employed including dialysis, outcome, cause of death were collected and analyzed.

Results: The median age at the diagnosis of renal issues was 37, with a higher prevalence among females (58.1%). Among the cases, 28 experienced renal problems after being diagnosed with AOSD, 12 had simultaneous diagnoses of renal issues and AOSD, and in 4 cases, renal problems appeared before AOSD diagnosis. Out of the 44 cases, 36 underwent renal biopsy, revealing various pathology findings including AA amyloidosis (25%), collapsing glomerulopathy (11.4%), thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) (11.4%), IgA nephropathy (9.1%), minimal change disease (6.8%), and others. Some cases were clinically diagnosed with TMA, proximal tubular dysfunction, or macrophage activation syndrome-related acute kidney injury. Treatment approaches varied, but glucocorticoids were commonly used. Renal involvement was associated with increased mortality and morbidity, with 6 out of 44 patients passing away, 4 progressing to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and data on 2 cases' outcomes not available.

Conclusion: Renal manifestations in AOSD are diverse but rarely studied owing to the rarity of the disease. Studies with larger data would be essential to study further on the pathogenesis and implications.

Keywords: Adult-onset Still’s disease; Kidney; Renal disease; Still’s disease.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review