Modulation of the gut microbiome and Firmicutes phylum reduction by a nutraceutical blend in the obesity mouse model and overweight humans: A double-blind clinical trial

Food Sci Nutr. 2024 Jan 19;12(4):2436-2454. doi: 10.1002/fsn3.3927. eCollection 2024 Apr.

Abstract

Overweight and obesity are closely linked to gut dysbiosis/dysmetabolism and disrupted De-Ritis ratio [aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio], which may contribute to chronic noncommunicable diseases onset. Concurrently, extensive research explores nutraceuticals, and health-enhancing supplements, for disease prevention or treatment. Thus, sedentary overweight volunteers were double-blind randomized into two groups: Novel Nutraceutical_(S) (without silymarin) and Novel Nutraceutical (with silymarin). Experimental formulations were orally administered twice daily over 180 consecutive days. We evaluated fecal gut microbiota, based on partial 16S rRNA sequences, biochemistry and endocrine markers, steatosis biomarker (AST/ALT ratio), and anthropometric parameters. Post-supplementation, only the Novel Nutraceutical group reduced Clostridium clostridioforme (Firmicutes), Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio (F/B ratio), and De-Ritis ratio, while elevating Bacteroides caccae and Bacteroides uniformis (Bacteroidetes) in Brazilian sedentary overweight volunteers after 180 days. In summary, the results presented here allow us to suggest the gut microbiota as the action mechanism of the Novel Nutraceutical promoting metabolic hepatic recovery in obesity/overweight non-drug interventions.

Keywords: gut microbiota; overweight; prebiotics; silymarin.