Management of cardiac emergencies in women: a clinical consensus statement of the Association for Acute CardioVascular Care (ACVC), the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI), the Heart Failure Association (HFA), and the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) of the ESC, and the ESC Working Group on Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy

Eur Heart J Open. 2024 Feb 26;4(2):oeae011. doi: 10.1093/ehjopen/oeae011. eCollection 2024 Mar.


Cardiac emergencies in women, such as acute coronary syndromes, acute heart failure, and cardiac arrest, are associated with a high risk of adverse outcomes and mortality. Although women historically have been significantly underrepresented in clinical studies of these diseases, the guideline-recommended treatment for these emergencies is generally the same for both sexes. Still, women are less likely to receive evidence-based treatment compared to men. Furthermore, specific diseases affecting predominantly or exclusively women, such as spontaneous coronary dissection, myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries, takotsubo cardiomyopathy, and peripartum cardiomyopathy, require specialized attention in terms of both diagnosis and management. In this clinical consensus statement, we summarize current knowledge on therapeutic management of these emergencies in women. Key statements and specific quality indicators are suggested to achieve equal and specific care for both sexes. Finally, we discuss several gaps in evidence and encourage further studies designed and powered with adequate attention for sex-specific analysis.

Keywords: Acute coronary syndromes; Acute heart failure; Cardiac arrest; Cardiogenic shock; Sex differences; Women.

Publication types

  • Review